Wednesday, May 10, 2006


Insects are invertebrates. Insects are more successful because they have protective shell; they are small and most of them can fly. This shows us that it easy for insect to escape very quickly from enemies and easy to travel to new environments. They need small food and live in small cracks and species. Insects are directly useful to humans by producing honey, wax and other products. They also play an important role as a pollinator of crops, natural enemies of pest, scavengers and food for other creatures.
Sexual reproduction

They are male and females insects that mate and reproduce sexually. Sometimes there is shortage of males then some female’s species may reproduce. In a few species females produce only females. Most female’s insects have one or more spermatozoa where sperm can be stored and can be support by secretions from the spermsthecal glands. Female’s reproductive organ consists of ovaries, bilateral Oviducts, a common Oviduct and a vaginal.
The male reproductive systems consists of paired testes, where the sperm produced, seminal vesicles and is where sperm are stored,, accessory glands and a common ejaculatory duct. Mating is important for sexual reproduction. After mating, female’s insects from many species become less attractive.
Mating strategies
Insects used displays or dancing to attract females to mate. Male fight or decide the winner by comparing size. Some female insects not mate unless the male is in possession of a suitable territory or food source. Female moths have smell glands on the abdomen that secrete. These chemicals attract males. Some male hide a pheromone to make the female to mate. Some insects used sound to mate but others used visions to mate. Females’ scorpion flies require a marriage gift of food from the male before mating. Then the males’ mates with her while she eats, because of these male are selected by the size and quality of gift.
Mating strategies through vision
Butterflies are one of the important types of insects. Butterflies used colour and movement to attract male to mate. Males will follow coloured imitation of females. Some male’s flies form dense group. Then females are attracted by sight of these groups and they start to enter and select mate. Male fireflies are attracted by, and fly to, the light beat produce by the wingless females. Both sexes of butterflies are meet on hill tops or other geographical outcropping where they will select a mate, but other insects form a group.
Mating strategies through sound
Mosquitoes are one of the important types of insects, and the male mosquitoes are attracted by the message produced by the wing vibration of the female. But some grasshoppers and cicadas are attracted by the sound produced by their males. Crickets use their burrows to resonate the sound, but cicadas use the enlarge empty space in their abdomens. Some leafhoppers communicate by using substrate vibration.

Males are allow to leave females after mating, giving those males opportunity to increase their reproductive success by locating and inseminating additional females. In many insects’ species, seminal fluid received from fluids during mating mediate post mating behavioural and physiological changes in females.


Hoffmann, M.P. and Frodsham, A.C. 1993 Insect Facts and Information. [Online]. Available from:[2006, May 08 13:11]
University of Sydney February, 2004.How the sexes find each other. [Online] Available from:, Anatomy/reproduction.html.[2006 May 10:00]


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